Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Long Term Effects of Children of Addictive Parents

PSY 281: Developmental Psychology 24 November 2012 Long Term Effects of Children of Addictive Parents Nothing makes a child grow up faster than having a parent who is addicted to drugs. A child of an addicted parent has no choice but to act as an adult. These children are often left alone and when they aren’t alone, their addicted parent is usually passed out in a drug induced stupor; leaving the child to fend for themselves and/or their siblings. Does having a drug addicted parent have an effect on a child’s emotional development? If so, does this form of abuse that is recognized in the category of neglect have a long lasting effect on the child into adulthood? A child of an addict is constantly exposed to risks more so†¦show more content†¦The real question should be why is this still an issue especially with all the advances made in society, why is child maltreatment the worst in the United States when we are supposed to be the greatest country in the world? Once a child or teen has been taken away from an abusive home, they are usually placed in foste r care if there are no relatives to provide a safe home for the child. Once the known abused child is placed in foster care the unfortunate truth is that after they are registered in the system it is quite easy for the child’s case to get lost and slip through the cracks of that same foster care system that was developed to assist them. The child then becomes a victim once again adding to the lasting psychological effect the child will have for the rest of his/her life. This leads back to the original question; does having a drug addicted parent have an effect on a child’s emotional development? Well, maybe! The truth is that a child that is maltreated or neglected will certainly have emotional repercussions whether the parent is addicted to drugs or just a bad parent. I can speak of the causes of being raised by an addicted parent because I was a victim and to some extent, I still am a victim. I grew up to be a relatively healthy adult. I never used drugs, never smoked a cigarette and was a decent student. I did however become pregnant at the age of 17 but handled it very maturely. For the most part I was able to reflectShow MoreRelatedPrescribing Addictive Drugs : Drugs1449 Words   |  6 PagesJourdan Valentine Ms. Odenbaugh College Writing 19 October 2015 Prescribing Addictive Drugs Since as early as the 1960s, OxyContin and Oxycodone have been considered addictive. During this time these drugs were carefully monitored and controlled. In 1995 this drug was release on the market to the public. This caused the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime to lose control over the safe monitored environment that OxyContin and Oxycodone had previously been categorized within (History of OxyContin)Read MoreArgumentative Essay On Drug Abuse1366 Words   |  6 Pagesout that drug abuse in teens can cause severe health effects, emotional and behavioral issues, drug dependency, and major brain damage; many strategies can be implemented to eliminate these negative effects and possibly a long-term addiction to drugs. The impelling behavior towards drug abuse in teens can be prevented by making addictive nonprescription drugs available only behind the counter, providing information and encouragement towards parents on why they should enforce rules against drug use,Read MoreWhat is the issue? Cigarette smoking is the biggest killer in the world and all around600 Words   |  3 Pagesheart disease, and as well as primitive death. Smoking can be the hardest habit to stop because tobacco contains nicotine which can be addictive. Effects There are many more reasons why to quit smoking tobacco. Tobacco smoking can cause lots of damage to your body’s organs and system. Tobacco smoking can lead you to lung cancer. Short term Effects: The short-term that occurs due to tobacco smoking can increase your blood pressure and heart rate. People who smoke are more likely unable to work andRead More Amphetamines And Methamphetamines Essay778 Words   |  4 Pagesnon-medically to avoid sleep, improve athletic performance, or to counter the effects of depressant drugs. Amphetamines are addictive. Because of this, when the user discontinues use or reduces the amount that they use, withdrawal symptoms may occur. Some withdrawal symptoms are as follows: severe exhaustion, deep sleep lasting from 24 to 48 hours, psychotic reaction, extreme hunger, deep depression, anxiety reactions, and long but disturbed sleep. Although someone using amphetamines may experience withdrawalRead MoreMedicating Children with Behavioral and Psychological Disorders755 Words   |  3 PagesEvery parent who has a child suffering from a psychological disorder that affects their behavior dreads a new school year. This means new teachers not aware of t he disorder, more parent-teacher conferences, and more pressure to medicate the child. The most common and well known behavioral disorders are Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Most Americans have heard of Ritalin and Adderall, either being used to calm hyperactive children or used illegallyRead MoreThe Dangers Of Teenage Smoking Awareness987 Words   |  4 PagesTeenage smoking awareness Old retired Grandpa lives with his family and takes care of all the family members as being the oldest member. He is a guidance to all his children. He had work for their local council before retirement for more then a decade. In the family he is the one that is very well aware Laws He is involved in making decision for the family. It had been about three years since his grandson had entered high school and he would casually ask for his grandson’s progress at school andRead MoreCocaine : A Dangerous Drug1381 Words   |  6 PagesCocaine is a very dangerous drug that can ruin many lives. Knowing the facts about cocaine and what the effects of this drug are is very important as it may save a life, not just the individual using the drug but also the friends and family around that individual. These facts may include the history of cocaine, the usage of cocaine, Diagnosis of addiction, effects of cocaine, how to deter the use of cocaine and the treatment after addiction. The first few things to know about cocaine is what isRead MoreThe Disastrous Effects Of Parental Drug Addiction On Children1478 Words   |  6 PagesThe Disastrous Impact of Parental Drug Addiction on Children Drug addiction is a serious issue in not only America today, but globally. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, substance addiction is a â€Å"chronic, relapsing brain disease that is characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use, despite the harmful consequences† (â€Å"What is drug addiction?†). Drug abuse affects not only the user, but those around the user as well. The actions of a drug user place a significant amount of worryRead MoreAgainst The Legalization Of Drugs1671 Words   |  7 Pageswill not work today. Wilson’s argument on the detrimental effects of legalizing drugs on our society as a whole would not only have severe effects on our children and young adults, but also our unborn fetuses. Specifically, Wilson’s essay describes the detrimental effects of heroin and crack cocaine. Wilson describes the side effects produced by the different drugs. Wilson also describes how the route of administration changes the effects drastically for the user. Wilson goes on to explain thatRead MoreEssay about Ritalin And Its Uses1453 Words   |  6 Pagesmoderate stimulant properties. There has been a great deal of concern about its addictive qualities and adverse affects. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;ADHD is a relatively new disorder. It was introduced in 1980, where it was labeled ADD(attention deficit disorder). In the 1950s, children were simply labeled quot;hyperkinetic.quot; The term quot;hyperactivityquot; was added in 1987, hence the name ADHD. Not all children have the hyperactivity, and thus are labeled to have ADD. ADD is not treated

Monday, May 18, 2020

My Analysis About a Sound of Thunder - 961 Words

My Analysis about A Sound of Thunder --By Lillian ( Class:2, No:2) A Sound of Thunder is a short story written by Ray Bradbury which belongs to the genre of science fiction. The story set in A.D.2055 when time travel is possible, this is the story of a travel agency, Time Safari Inc., that arrangeed hunting trips back in time to hunt dinosaurs. It is also a futuristic story about how changing a small thing can result in a huge change somewhere down the timeline. In this case, a nervous hunter, Eckels, stepped off the trail, and stepped on a butterfly. The historical repercussions of the death of a single butterfly, compounded by millions of years of effects. What I want to know is why Eckels’ behaviour†¦show more content†¦but we still can hypothetically see, through the pictures painted by the travel guide Travis, that one trivial matter and one wrong move could destroy anâ€Å" entire history of life † . Then, one of the men panicked and ran away. He fell off the platform as he rushed back and scrabbled at a golden butterfly with shaking fingers accidentally. Finally, the group of people went back to travel agency. While dramatically effective, the ending contradicts Bradbury’s earlier example of the dominoes effect and the mouse.We can infer from the ending that while the players remain the same, but people’s character and concept changed. For instance, the official had supported Krith brfore their began time trival, but when they came back, the official supported Krith’ s rival and hated Krith. What more, presidential candidates Keith and Deutscher, that their environment and the evolution of the human language has been influenced. Therefore, readers take it for granted that Eckels’ s behavour caused these results. What I want to emphasize is that you all fail to see the fact that the platform they extended there would have an impact on the area too. This platform totally exposed in the air no matter how high it was set. It was set there for a mightly long time, so nobody knew whatShow MoreRelatedThe Drummer Boy868 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿KEY: Short Story Analysis of The Drummer Boy of Shiloh Title: â€Å"The Drummer Boy of Shiloh† Author: Ray Bradbury Famous for writing science fiction, especially for the novel Fahrenheit 451. Setting  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   General Time: Civil War (1860- 1864)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Specific Time: April, begins at midnight and lasts for about 30 min. the night before a battle   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   General place: the South, Tennessee      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Specific place: battle site, near the church at Shiloh, by OwlRead More Cliches Essay804 Words   |  4 Pages â€Å"If you study balls to the wall from now on, you just might pass this class†- said my roommate when he saw me studying for the Financial Statement Analysis course, â€Å"Professor is a real ball breaker.† When I heard that phrase, I assumed he was referring to testicles, but in fact he wasn’t. Balls to the wall means to push to the limit, go all out, full speed. This is a very colorful phrase; one needs to be careful when using it. Although its real origin is very benign, most people assume it is a referenceRead MoreRenowned Erotic Poetry Editor David Lehman Once Said, â€Å"Sexual2071 Words   |  9 Pagesfor mere animals. As for many people in the world, their desires are the key to determining what actions they are going to take in their life. The same logic is also applicabl e to Marc Cohen’s erotic poem â€Å"It Never Happened† whose simple premise is about the story of a man and women in a relationship meant to explore the vastness of human sexual behavior and desires. However, though there are many unsolved mysteries of this poem, which can only become deciphered with the small fragments that are alreadyRead MoreThe Waste Land by T. S. Eliot2649 Words   |  11 PagesGame of Chess,† â€Å"The Fire Sermon,† â€Å"Death by Water,† and â€Å"What the Thunder Said.† The poem begins with an epigraph of â€Å"Satyricon,† in ancient Greek and Latin. That story is of Cumaean Sibyl, Apollo’s prophetess, wishing for immorality. She is granted this, however, it is immortality without eternal youth. Therefore, she miserably and painfully grows older forever, never dying (Arbiter 7). The quote translates into: I saw with my own eyes the Sibyl hanging in a cage, and when the boys criedRead MorePoetry Analysis : The Road Not Taken The Choice O Captain ! Essay2066 Words   |  9 PagesName: Alex Chilet Period: 5 Poetry Analysis Chart As we read The Road Not Taken The Choice O Captain! My Captain! The Centaur Two Haikus Identity Paraphrase Translate the poem in your words. Explain what the poem means. Stanza 1-Speaker of poem in the woods. The wood is sunny, bright, it is Fall. He comes to a fork in the road. He’s trying to choose one road. He can only take one. He looks down one path and he can see pretty far but he doesn’tRead MoreThe General Summary Of Banquos Macbeth1530 Words   |  7 Pagesthe battle. The witches make three prophecies for each of them and Macbeth begins to wonder what the future entails. Analysis: Once again, the witches enter the stage to the sounds of thunder. They boast of their evil powers. The third witch implies the limits of their power. â€Å"Though his bark cannot be lost, Yet it shall be tempest tossed (I, iii, 24–25)†. As she talks about the sailor’s boat, she implies she cannot make the boat disappear, but only make his journey very unpleasant. The limitsRead MoreAnalysis of the Three Witches in Macbeth by William Shakespeare1776 Words   |  8 PagesAnalysis of the Three Witches in Macbeth by William Shakespeare In this essay, I am going to look at and explore the three witches in Shakespeare’s Macbeth. I will look at the way they are presented in each of their four scenes; how audiences might react to them and the part they play in his downfall. The witches don’t appear much in the play but bring about the idea of both evil and ambition. In Act 1 Scene 1 the mood is set. We first hear of the witches and the playRead More Doctor Faustus - Analysis Essay1785 Words   |  8 Pages I. The play Doctor Faustus by Christopher Marlow was first published in Manchester by Manchester Publishing in 1588, no information about the play’s first production date was found. II. Doctor Faustus is contrived of the following: Faustus, a man well learned in medicine and other knowledge’s known to man is dissatisfied with where his life is heading so he calls upon the Lucifer and His accomplice, Mephistophilis, to teach him the ways of magic. They agree to be his tutors only if Faustus willRead MoreAnalysis Of Mary Shelley s Frankenstein1615 Words   |  7 Pagesdepiction they might think it to be, they will miss out on many of the qualities of the painting that reside below the immediately apparent surface level. Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein is a text dedicated to expounding upon the dangers of such superficial analysis. In Frankenstein, Mary Shelley openly condemns the surface level and appearance oriented methodology under which the human mind operates. The very protagonist of the novel is inspired solely by reputation and how things look. His entire motivationRead MoreEssay on Eco-Poetics Reading in The Wate Land by T.S. Eliot3164 Words   |  13 Pageseco-poetics reading of T. S. Eliot’s, ‘The Waste Land’? In this discussion of Eliot’s poem I will examine the content through the optic of eco-poetics. Eco- poetics is a literary theory which favours the rhizomatic over the arborescent approach to critical analysis. The characteristics of the rhizome will provide the overarching structure for this essay. Firstly rhizomes can map in any direction from any starting point. This will guide the study of significant motifs in ‘The Waste Land.’ Secondly they grow

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

What Makes A Motor Work How Does It Energize Things The...

Motors have quickly become an elemental apparatus in the operation of nearly everything in this world. Trains that take people to work, assembly lines that pump out food, toys and an assortment of commodities, cars, trucks, planes†¦The list goes on. But more importantly, how does a motor work and how does it energize things the way it does? Why is the motor still being used as opposed to some newer technological innovation that could potentially be more efficient? There are two distinctions that are subtle but nonetheless important, and that is the difference between and electric motor and an engine. The first(most glaringly at that) obvious difference is that an engine is often fueled with some kind of fossil fuel, such as petroleum†¦show more content†¦Since the scientific revolution, scientists and witty minds alike tried to come up with early precursors of the motor. However, quite a bit of the technology used today to produce items such as motors and engines were not in existence back then. The first resemblance of a motor can be seen in Andrew Gordon’s electrostatic machines that were produced in the 1740’s. However, this is not exactly a hallmark discovery that revolutionized the field whatsoever. What was ground-breaking in the field, however, was the discovery of Ampere’s law in 1820 which displayed the production of mechanical force via interactions of an electric current within a magnetic field. With the discovery of Ampere’s law came two impressive innovations in the field of electric motors and engines that slowly bring us closer to the ones of today: Barlow’s wheel and Michael Faraday’s 1821 electromagnetic experiment. Faraday’s experiment build directly upon the theory that Ampere concocted the year before, and it displayed electromagnetic activity being able to convert electrical energy to mechanical energy. This was shown by a loose wire being dipped in mercury with a magnet at the end. A current rose through the wire via the magnet, and the wire rotated around it, displaying that the wire can facilitate a close magnetic field. These attempts were not actually very productive, however. They didn’t resemble any

English Reflection - 722 Words

The first three months of this school year was a roller coaster ride. We have several new students with different levels of English proficiency. At first I don’t know how I will cater them or even approach them knowing that having been comfortable with the previous students who are knowledgeable with the language then here comes the new students. They may only be one or few of them in the classroom, but still their presence is still significant in the success of the class. I am blessed to have students who are not only willing to help me but more so to help their friends to be able to learn and understand the things in the classroom. Translators in my room are everywhere. I guess when you give them rules for the first time, it will really†¦show more content†¦They are excited to show what they prepared with their classmates. Some of them, especially the higher level, they feel shy or anxious whenever its their performance or their work is being shown in class. Well it s normal, knowing that their sense of consciousness grows as they mature. The number of students now is growing with different learning styles and behaviors. Having them in a class is really a combination of patience and understanding. I do admit that some of the students who are new in the language are quite hesitant to speak up ending up being the tail of the class. Nevertheless, I still try to push them to at least try. I gave them opportunity to be the leader of the group or asked them to read the things written in the board or smartboard. I know that this part of learning will take some time but with perseverance everything can be possible. I already heard some of them speaking English with their friends. On the other hand, having a mix of the classes for this school year is also a test. Seeing them settled and well-behave last year is not a picture for some of the classes. Despite the fact that teachers are strict, still some are going beyond the limit. But as what we always s ay, at the end of the day, they are still kids who are still learning and exploring. I am just positive as the year progress, so as theShow MoreRelatedReflection For English Class870 Words   |  4 PagesWhen I enrolled in English 101. I was happy and excited that I have one more class away from finishing English class for the rest of my school years. The objective of the course was to make us better writers, and I certainly have improved. I learned what makes a paper good or bad, what makes it easier to write a good paper, and how the manner that the class is held makes a difference. Then, I thought they were good because of the grades I got. Now, I find myself working over twice as hard forRead MoreEnglish Reflection901 Words   |  4 PagesAs a kid in high school I considered my least favorite subject to be English. I was never a very good reader or writer so my specific set of skills, or lack thereof, never really translated to very good grades. I would do enough to get by, but I never really attempted to get any better. I even went so far as to take my senior year of English in summer school in an attempt to get it out of the way early and not have to deal with the headache in my final year. After I finished high school I took aRead MoreEnglish Reflection924 Words   |  4 Pagesbegin our Shakespeare research, I wrote a biography on Shakespeare with the help of my index cards packed with useful information. Soon after learning about Shakespeare’s life, we began to read his plays, which introduced us to a new form of the english language. Despite all the research I did on Shakespeare’s plays, we also learned how to annotate and reflect on an articles. The articles annotated on were based on multiple statistics, experts and organizations. After annotating the articles we wouldRead MoreEnglish Reflection1351 Words   |  6 PagesHowever, English 10 has by far been my best experience in writing. By taking this course I have retrieved many helpful elements, that will help me become a successful writer throughout college. In high school, essays often gave me stress and anxiety, however, when taking English 10, I was able to learn to enjoy the process of writing purposefully and mindfully. Even though, I have taken advanced placement English courses in high school and have taken a practice run of college level English over theRead MoreEnglish Reflection1127 Words   |  5 PagesPersonally, I have always loved English classes, but no other instructor has taught me the true meaning of the subject the way Dr. Teller has. I glance back at my first minor assignment and I read my main goals for the course of English 1. I am proud to say I have accomplished my missions with the help of Dr. Teller and his â€Å"survival guide† I can say I survived English 1. My greatest worry was the works cited pages because I never understood the importance in giving credit to the authors. In additionRead MoreEnglish Reflection835 Wo rds   |  4 PagesBefore I stepped foot into my English 1303 class, I had assumed that it would’ve been a class that I was not fond off. Within high school, English was never one of my strong points; so when college started I did not really know what to expect. Most of the time during high school, I would never really give much thought into how my essays were written, I just wrote them to get it over with. Within high school English classes, I had never experienced any sort of connection with the pieces that I hadRead MoreEnglish Reflection1551 Words   |  7 Pagesfor the next step. College is no different than kindergarten through senior year there are classes that the student is required to take in order to move on and be better prepped for what is to come. English Composition 1 is one of the classes almost every college student is required to take. Now English has never been my strong suite personally, but rather science and math. I do however agree with most of the re asoning behind making it a required class. The class will not only help become more professionalRead More Personal Narrative: Reflections on 7th grade English Class Essay967 Words   |  4 Pagesto the beginning of 7th grade English class I now realized of all the great things I have accomplished this year for English class. I am proud of how hard I worked this year and how my English has gotten better. I am proud to have been part of Ms Ds English class and she is a phenomenal teacher. I think that one day I will be able to work as a English teacher like Ms D or I will become a journalist. Although I must say that when I first entered English class I had so many differentRead MoreReflection Paper In English937 Words   |  4 Pagesmuch as my brain capacity can endure is my ultimate goal in life. School is not just a chore, it is a necessity to further me into the future. English class, specifically the writing portion has evolved my understanding of persuasive li terature and how to explain my thoughts on paper for an audience to understand. Throughout the first semester of KCC English I have improved my essays from small to large mistakes. Overlooking my first draft of the Cause and Effect, I have realized I am growing as aRead MoreReflection Paper In English1063 Words   |  5 PagesEnglish is a terrible subject. We learn it the day we start school in kindergarten and all the way till the end of high school and possibly college. English composition is a completely unavoidable subject and not everyone likes learning about things such as grammar, writing, and reading comprehension. It is one of those subjects that many students just want to get it over with as quickly as possible. On the other hand, students need to realize the English composition classes offer a lot more benefits

Mental Disorders as an issue of Public Health Concern

Question: Discuss about the Mental Disorders as an issue of Public Health Concern. Answer: Mental disorder is a term used in describing an array of conditions that vary in duration and severity. Mental disorders manifest in different ways the most common being anxiety, depression, and disorders related to substance abuse. Other lesser common but severe disorders are bipolar disorders, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia[1]. The effects from mental disorders can be damaging on families and also the individuals. The effects can also be spread to the larger society. For persons suffering from severe conditions, their emotional, cognitive, as well as social abilities can be significantly interfered with[2] often resulting in reduced productivity, homelessness, under-employment, unemployment, and economic disadvantage[3]. Persons with severe disorders are usually in isolation due to the illness and associated symptoms which lead to discrimination or stigmatization[4]. Statistics on Mental Disorders There are more than 450 million people around the world who live with a form of mental illness[5] Alcohol dependence, dementia, epilepsy, depression, schizophrenia, and other substance abuse, neurological, and mental disorders comprise of 13 percent of the world's disease burden which is a figure that is much higher than cancer and cardiovascular disease[6]. By the year 2030, in middle income nations, the second to the top cause of disease burden will be depression and will be third on the list in low income nations [7] Person suffering form mental illnesses in the US succumb and die at an average of 25 years earlier in comparison to the rest of the population[8]. In Denmark, the gap is at 18.7 years for specific disorders with the gap believed to be wider in third world nations.[9] Suicide rates across the globe have increased by 60% over a period of 45 years[10]. Of the persons that commit suicide, 90% are those that have mental disorders that are diagnosable[11]. In some countries, suicide accounts for one of the leading causes of mortality among persons aged 15years and 44 years and the second cause of death in persons aged 10years to 24 years.[12] 70% of persons with mental disorders in the UK are discriminated with the rates even higher in developing countries.[13] Unemployment rates are as high as 90% for persons with psychosocial and mental illnesses[14] Persons with severe mental disorders have a higher likelihood of developing other health risks. For example, over 75% of persons in the US with severe mental disorders are smokers while persons with bipolar disorder or depression are twice as likely to be obese when compared to the general population.[15] Who is at Risk Mental illness has no one singular cause. Mental illness results from a combination of factors: environmental, psychological, and genetic. With regard to genetics, there are persons that are predisposed to becoming ill such as those that have pre-existing thought, developmental, behavioural, or mood disorders. Medical conditions can catalyze development of some mental conditions. An example is depression, which can be triggered by other illnesses such as cancer, diabetes, stroke, heart disease, hormonal disorders, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's disease[16]. In addition, some people that are susceptible to non-food allergies are more predisposed to depression than persons who do not suffer such allergies. Further, medications can cause or exacerbate depression in people. Such medications include antibiotics, sleeping pills, some blood pressure pills, and birth control pills. Some anti-seizure drugs such as Topamax, Lamictal, and Neurontin are related to high risk of suicide occurrence[17]. The environmental risks can start prior to birth. For example, some infections during pregnancy can increase the chances of schizophrenia. A difficult childhood characterized by physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, bullying, poverty, parental loss, watching violent parents, insecure attachment, or emotional neglect are just but a few catalysts. Ethnic representation is also a determinant; minority groups in neighbourhoods where they are few in number predispose such individuals to development of mental illnesses[18]. Mental illness such as bipolar disorder has been associated with stress. For example persons that are bi-sexual, lesbian, or gay, often have increased emotional challenges which are linked to a number of social stressors that affect their coping with society's reactions to their bisexuality or homosexuality[19]. In addition, psychiatric disorders can be as a result of unemployment and increases the possibility of drug dependence by almost quadruple the number of times, and also triples the possibility of psychotic illnesses or phobia. Unemployment increases the possibility of developing obsessive compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and depression[20]. Potential Prevention Measures The public responses to mental health risks need to be within different social group levels. The exact response will be dependent on the target group and the specific purpose. However, broad categorisation of actions can be done as follows: protection and promotion of mental health; and improving or restoring mental health through care and treatment for persons that suffer from mental illness[21]. Three strategic directions can be taken namely: development and protection of individual attributes; support of communities and households; support for persons that are vulnerable within the society[22] Development and protection of individual attributes: Between mothers and their children through enabling early attachment; provision of natal and parental care and training including post-partum depression; development of nurturing, stable, and safe relationships between caregivers, parents, and children. Ensure sufficient stimulation and nutrition for adolescents and children. Develop healthy community activities and ageing policies. Discourage substance abuse, encourage healthy diets and physical activity among all age groups[23]. Support of communities and households: Ensure that adolescents and children live in safe environments; prevention is targeted towards those with parents diagnosed with mental condition; prevent violence between intimate partners. Support increase of more employment opportunities, as well as safer and supportive working environments for employees. Ensure low income households have basic living conditions such as sanitation, water, and shelter; provide financial and social protection. Ensure neighborhoods are safe; restrict availability of tobacco, drugs, and alcohol[24]. Support for persons that are vulnerable within the society: development and implementation of policies in social inclusions. Enforce policies and laws in anti-discrimination. Education should be availed and accessed by all. Implement policies in gender equity; promote freedoms and rights of women. Foster media reporting that is responsible. Conduct campaigns to raise awareness[25] Bibliography DoHA (Department of Health and Ageing) 2013.National Mental Health Report 2013: tracking progress of mental health reform in Australia 19932011. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia. Edwards, R. (2015). Mental Health and Mental Illness. McLachlan R, Gilfillan G Gordon J 2013.Deep and persistent disadvantage in Australia. Canberra: Productivity Commission. Morgan VA, Waterreus A, Jablensky A, Mackinnon A, McGrath JJ, Carr V, et al. 2011.People living with psychotic illness: report on the second Australian national survey. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia. NIH (2016). Health and Education Statistics: Suicide. Psychiatric News (2011). People With Serious Mental Illness Have Shorter Life Expectancy. Slade T, Johnston A, Teesson M, Whiteford H, Burgess P, Pirkis J et al. 2009.The mental health of Australians 2. Report on the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. Canberra: DoHA. The Guardian (2010). Mental illness and the developing world. Torgovnick, K (2008). Why do the mentally ill die younger?,8599,1863220,00.html#ixzz26AvjkszJ WHO (2011). Global burden of mental disorders and the need for a comprehensive, coordinated response from health and social sectors at the country level. WHO (2012). Mental Health: Suicide Data. WHO. (2010) People with mental disabilities cannot be forgotten. WHO (2012). Risks to mental health: an overview of vulnerabilities and risk factors. WHO. (2016) Mental Health: Strengthening our response.

Critical Thinking and Managerial Decision Making

Question: Describe about the "Critical Thinking and Managerial Decision Making". Answer: Introduction The critical thinking concerns with a disciplined channel of thinking, which is rational, clear, open-minded and guided by evidence. The objective of critical thinking is to form a strong base of informed decision making. The critical thinking allows individuals to induce a broad thinking capability, which would aid them in taking crucial decisions in professional life as well as personal life. The critical thinking enhances the reasoning ability of an individual. The critical thinking is a characteristic feature of the active learners. There are many characteristics of the critical thinkers, which help them in a professional scenario. They are able to understand the connecting links between ideas, determine the importance of ideas, recognize arguments and approach any given problem in a systematic manner. The critical thinkers are able to identify any inconsistencies in the reasoning process and evaluate any errors in the reasoning process. They can provide valid justification of th eir values, beliefs and own assumptions. The critical thinkers can take crucial decisions within a short period of time. Discussion The critical thinking deals with the enhancement of the thought process beyond the everyday way of thinking. I have benefitted from the course on critical thinking and managerial decision making. I have acquired skills, which are required for becoming a successful manager. I can clearly understand the various situations in day to day life. I can make accurate and faster conclusions from specific problems and make good decisions. I can avoid mistakes and can recognize untapped opportunities easily. I have learned that for the purpose of effective decision making, three things are essential- Clarity, Conclusions, and Decisions. I have learned that my thinking can be purposeful and realized that sometimes I become partial in my thinking process. I have learned from the course that I should consider other peoples perspective too and avoid biases in the decision making process. I have learned to organize my thoughts and incorporate other's thinking before arriving at a decision. I have realized the importance of clarity of thoughts in a day to day life. I have started to open up my mind and accept any form of feedback or conversation with open arms. When I confront problems, I have started to inspect the problem thoroughly, which eliminates any associated ambiguity. I try to follow a smooth transition in between clarity and conclusions. I have started to believe in the fact that there is a need to increase the intellectual capacity of the brain. I engage myself in clearing my cluttered feelings; calm myself down in times of distress and getting rid of negative thoughts. I have observed that negative thoughts t end to clog my brain and I am unable to undertake vital decisions. I have decided to stop letting the negative thoughts from establishing themselves in my brain. The positive thoughts help me to have a clear channel of thoughts and hence help me in taking better decisions. I have learned to create a vision in my professional endeavors. A vision helps me to clarify the purpose, list of problems to solve and the duration for achieving the goals. It provides day to day guidance to me in achieving my goals. I have observed benefits of clarifying my thoughts process, especially in my workplace. I have started focusing on my gains, more than focusing on my losses. The ability to concentrate on the gains helps me to analyze myself in a better way. It helps me to focus on the objectives and goals of my personal life as well as professional life. There is a need to have a clear idea of the mission of my organization. The main objective of clarity is the ability to solve crucial problems or issues. I have started to look creatively at the situations which revolve in my day to day life. I have started looking at situations from multiple angles and the potential solutions. I have started to consider all the premises about a particular situation and then arrive at a conclusion. I did not consider these premises earlier, and hence my decision making process was not complete. After reading the course, I have learned to consider facts, observations, experiences and assumptions for drawing a conclusion. I have learned that a strong premise should be developed for deriving a good conclusion. A good conclusion or a good decision would give good results. I need to negotiate with the concerned persons and understand their assumptions. The course also made me understand the credibility of a premise. The premise should be realistic, feasible, gained from a reliable source, verifiable and consistent with my existing knowledge. I have also started to consider all the available premises and variables before arriving at a particular conclusion. It is not wise to make conclusions based on the few facts or incomplete information. The decision making process can be best achieved by the consideration of all available information. In an organization, there is a need to do thorough data collection and data analysis before arriving at a conclusion or decision. The course helped me to understand the importance of self-awareness. I came to know that self-awareness is the key to good leadership. I strive to be a good leader in my workplace and hence I should have knowledge of my attitudes, feelings, desires, strengths and motives. I have learned that self-awareness can be created by feedback from others, reflecting my feelings, admitting mistakes, aware of my emotions and others. I have imbibed the wonderful concept of Johari Window and applied the same to understand my relationship with my inner self and with others. I understood how knowledge about self and others could be developed effectively by focusing on specific factors like self-efficacy and self-esteem. I have started to establish a relationship with others based on trust. I have learnt the importance of self disclosure, which can help in creating a mutual harmony between the team members. I have learnt from the Johari Window that I need to increase the vastness of the open area, wi thout the disclosure of excessive personal information. I have learnt that the open area is the most crucial area, which is essential for being more productive, effective and cooperative. The open area is the underlying principle of the give and take procedure that happens between other people and me. The Johari Window is an excellent visual tool to analyze myself as well establishes my relationship with others. It helps me to take better control of my decisions and be confident about my decisions. I have learned that the contexts are important in making my decision making more effective. When I am bombarded with situations, the first things that I should consider are analyzing the situations and select a particular context to which I should direct my decisions. There can be several contexts to a single situation like simple, complicated, complex, chaotic and unclear. In business worlds, I need to understand that there is no one single decision maker. I cannot take a decision alone in the corporate world, and there are several authorities involved in it. I should calculate all the possible risks that can arise from a particular situation before I take the final call. I am striving in a dynamic world, in which I would be exposed to psychological contracts. I have studied the features of psychological contracts such as voluntary choice, belief in agreement, multiple contract makers and others. I have learned to improve my disaster management skills. I have learned ways to manage the incurred losses from a failed contract. The negative emotions arising from the failure of a contract needs to be handled, and I have successfully learned how to manage failures. I have improved my skills of loyalty and stability, which are essential components of relational contracts. I have also learned the role of my employer in the employee management practices. I need to take an active part in the organizational change management and strive to get the best out of the people. One of the important characteristics of a manager is the analysis of potential risks. I have learned the importance of categorizing the risks according to priority and the probability of occurrence. There is also need to evaluate my strengths and weakness, which would help me to convert my identified weakness into strengths. The course also gave an outline to debating practices, roles, etiquettes, positioning, sequences and others, which are important components in the corporate world. The Reflect tool is very useful for gaining a clear understanding of me and the way I am perceived by others. I learnt to identify my own positive traits and my level of commitment towards my professional as well as personal growths. I got a clear picture about my approach to various challenges and the way I interact with my team mates or another person. I have created a personal development plan, which helps me to achieve my goals easily. It would help me to improve my emotional intelligence so that the objectives are fulfilled. The videos helped me to learn about game theory. They help me to understand the rules of competition and cooperation, which are important components in the corporate scenario. I learnt about added values, rules, and tactics for surviving in professional as well as personal life. Conclusion The course was helpful in shaping my mental abilities. The decision making ability is the most important feature of an individual. I have successfully implemented the learning of the course in real life. It has made me aware of myself and changed my way of thinking. I can take effective decisions in the least possible time, after going through the course.

Thursday, April 23, 2020

Stop Seeking Certainty.. Minows Response To Bork Essays - Intention

"Stop Seeking Certainty.." Minow's Response To Bork Philosophy Of Law In considering the views of Robert Bork and Martha Minow, I am impressed more by Minow. I will compare their respective views and arguments in an effort to show why I prefer the arguments of Minow to those of Bork. First though it is necessary to have a brief overview of Bork's philosophy. Bork is a firm believer in the originalist mode of Constitutional interpretation. Many different scholars may have differing views as to the meaning of the word originalism. Here, it is intended to define "an.. approach to constitutional adjudication that accords binding authority to the text of the Constitution or the intentions of it's adopters" (Lyons, pp. 329). This view can be subdivided into two categories. Those categories are the intentional and textual originalist views. The intention-based originalists argue that the original intent of the framers can be discerned from a neutral reading of the Constitution and peripherally related documents. The problem here is that the framers, the adopters, the ratifiers, and the electors all had possibly separate intent and it would be difficult to know all of their intentions. According to this view, the Constitutional text merely provides clues as to the intent of the above mentioned groups. So peripheral documents, such as the Federalist papers, are important clarifiers of the original intent. The second subdivision of orginalism is called the textual orginialist view. This view argues that the actual text of the Constitution is what is most important in terms of understanding Constitutional intent. Bork began as an intention theorist, then later changed and came to adopt the textual originalist view point. Neither subdivision of the view of orginalism is very popular today, as is evidenced by the fact that Bork was not confirmed by the Congress when he was nominated for the Supreme Court. Bork argues that by reading the text, and figuring out what the public understanding of the Constitution was at the time of it's writing, we can discern what the Constitution actually means. The problem here is obvious. It is very difficult to know what the public understanding at the time of the enactment of the Constitution was. It is even difficult to know if there was in fact a public understanding at all. It seems possible that there did not exist a public awareness of all of the facets of the Constitution. Bork argues that new Amendments to the Constitution are appropriate and permissible, that these are simply additions of new original ideas. However, he is opposed to constitutional "revisionism" of any kind. Here the term revisionism is intended to mean any reauthoring of constitutional principles by any governmental body other than the legislature. I think that Bork was specifically leery of the judiciary performing revisionist acts. He seemed to be more leery of a Judiciary branch performing "revisionism" than he was of the executive branch performing such acts. Bork said "The theory [of Constitutional interpretation] must therefore enable us to say what is the limit of the judge's legitimate authority..." (Bork. pp.54). Bork argues for a kind of enforced judicial restraint. Here, when I use the phrase "judicial restraint", I mean a strict adherence to precedents, the effects of which are so ingrained in our society as to make overturning them destructive to the fabric of our society at large. Bork goes on to argue for the importance of the neutrality principle as it relates to constitutional interpretation. According to Bork, a judge should make a decision based only on an original intent understanding of a given law in a given case. No personal pr eferences should come into play. Instead, legal principles should be applied equally across all cases which those principles encompass. It is Bork's assertion that his philosophy of original understanding can supply neutrality in deriving, defining and applying any legal principle. (Bork, pp. 53) So, on to the distinctions between deriving, defining and applying. On the issue of derivation, Bork argues that via his philosophical view of original intent, it is possible to derive the meaning of any given Constitutional principle and that if any given situation is not covered by the Constitution, that situation is beyond the scope of the power and scope of the Courts jurisdiction, and thereby leaves the court "quite properly powerless.." (Bork pp.53). On the issue of defining a principle, Bork argues again that this is quite possible within his framework and that all judges need to do in order define the breadth of a given principle is to take a historical look at the events a given principle concerned itself with at the time of the principles